Biomass is made up of organic compounds occurring naturally, such as animal and plant wastes as well as the so called energy plants. The latter are specifically planted to be utilised as fuels and to generate electrical energy and heat during their combustion.
The following types of biomass are used depending on the individual fields of power engineering:
- combustible biomass (base materials with low humidity content, mostly straw, miscanthus, firewood, etc.)
- gasified biomass (base materials with high humidity content, mostly green plant residues, animal manure, etc.)
- biomass fuel (plants with high sugar, starch, cellulose and oil content, mainly sugar beet, wheat, maize, sorghum, rapeseeds and sunflower seeds, etc.)
Biogases are formed from the mixture of (mainly) methane and carbon-dioxide during the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria in hermetic space. They are used as energy sources for power generation purpose. The greenhouse effect of the biogases may be mitigated through their disposal.
The following types of biogases are generated by human activities:
- biogas (energy source deriving from the digestion process of agricultural production residues, organic wastes, energy plants, etc. in artificial environment)
- sewage sludge gas (a type of gas generated during the gasification in the digestion towers of municipal sewage sludge treatment plants)
- landfill gas(the „byproduct” of municipal landfills, which need to be disposed due to environmental reasons (greenhouse effect) and be utilised if economically viable).
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